Distributed Energy Storage System (DES)
Distributed energy storage system (DES) consists of a plurality of power storage units distributed in electricity distribution grids. It can help increase reliance on renewables and reduce carbon emissions.
Energy storage can also be used to create community-level resiliency hubs. It can also be used to meet peak demand in densely populated cities, reducing strain on the electricity grid.
The Distributed Energy Storage System (DES) is a powerful application method for the distribution grid and energy markets. It is based on the idea of a cooperative network of many small power energy storage systems located in the distribution grid close to end consumers. In a demonstration project, sodium sulfide batteries were used to provide backup power for critical facilities and commercial buildings. The DES can be used to balance intermittent renewable generation, reduce peak electricity demand and mitigate the impact of network failures.
The DES is operated by the distribution system operator and is integrated in the bottom control layer of the power grid. This allows it to operate as a normal cost centre – mandatory back-up energy storage – or earn new revenues from the electricity market or other grid services. It can also provide additional capacity during grid events to restore loads, energize the grid and increase resilience.
Several flexibility models have been developed to evaluate the performance of DES. These models consider the different use cases of DES such as short-term needs like congestion management or unplanned outages, and long-term needs such as network investment deferral or renewable integration. Some of these models also consider multi-purpose swarm capabilities.
Energy storage systems help power grids mitigate fluctuating renewables and provide additional services to their customers. They are also becoming an important tool for reducing fossil fuel usage and investment in intermittent renewables. However, the reliability of these systems is a major concern. Thermal runaway is a critical issue that can lead to massive cell damage and potentially degrade the battery’s lifetime. This issue is expected to stifle the growth of the distributed energy storage system market during the forecast period.
Research on energy storage has focused on improving the performance of ESSs in power distributed energy storage system systems. A number of studies have been published on methods to optimize ESS utilization in terms of sizing, siting, and interconnection with the power grid. These methods can improve reliability and reduce costs, including interruptions and operational costs of the ESS.
Batteries are the most commonly used ESS technology. These electrochemical devices store chemical energy and release it as electrical energy, which is a key element of ESSs in power systems. Reliability of these devices is assessed using their state-of-charge (SOC), which reflects the condition of the device. The SOC of a battery can be measured through voltage and current sensors.
Distributed energy storage systems can replace fossil fuel peaker plants, which operate during periods of high electricity demand. These plants usually use natural gas, and many are located in poor neighborhoods, increasing air pollution and affecting public health.
The distributed energy storage system is a cost-effective solution to improve grid power quality and reliability. It can help reduce the load on utility grid equipment during periods of peak demand, which usually occur for a few days each year. It can also level the distributed energy storage system load throughout the day, which makes it easier to optimize generation, transmission, and distribution assets. This benefit can help utilities avoid or delay large investments in expensive systems upgrades.
The energy storage market is booming due to increased adoption of renewable energy. However, high initial set-up investment and the price of lithium are barriers to growth. Lithium prices have been driven by the rapid growth of the electric vehicle industry, which uses the technology to store and discharge electricity. The Russian invasion of Ukraine has also contributed to the price increase.
Combined with solar or wind, energy storage can help reduce the need for fossil fuel peaker plants. These plants run during periods of high electricity demand, which cause air pollution and exacerbate public health impacts in low-income and communities of color. Energy storage can replace these dirty peaker plants and eliminate the need to develop new ones in the future.
Energy storage is a key component of community resilience, as it provides backup power during natural disasters. It can also help meet peak energy demands in densely populated cities and minimize spikes in electricity costs. In addition, it can be used to support microgrids and resiliency hubs in rural areas.
Energy storage can help the world transition to a cleaner, greener energy system. It increases the reliability and flexibility of the grid, reduces greenhouse gas emissions, and lowers the need for new, pollution-emitting power plants. It can also provide ancillary services to the electricity industry and help customers save money on their bills. The key to maximizing these benefits is making sure that security measures are in place to protect the investment and prevent physical or financial damage.
The increasing adoption of distributed renewables and the proliferation of smart grids are driving the market for energy storage systems. These systems can be used to balance power generation and demand across the entire network, ensuring that there is always enough energy available. Additionally, they can help owners to save money on energy costs and improve operational uptime during outages. They can also earn revenue by bidding their excess capacity into markets or trading for ancillary services.
Unlike traditional generators, battery storage offers virtual inertia for the grid, preventing outages caused by sudden power imbalances and fluctuations. This is because the stored energy emulates the kinetic energy of the rotor in synchronous generators, which provides a buffer against power imbalances and helps to maintain grid stability. In addition, battery storage systems can also provide a range of other services, including frequency regulation, voltage control, backup and black start.